Law is a set of rules that are enforced by social institutions. It shapes politics, economics, and history. There are three major kinds of legal systems. They are civil, common law, and legal regulation. All of these systems have some similarities, but they all differ in the way they are written and interpreted.
Civil law is a broad term that covers a variety of areas, including contract law, landlord/tenant issues, and breach of contract claims. These areas of law often involve conflicts over money. The court may hear both sides of a controversy and make a decision.
Common law is a more detailed legal system that includes the doctrine of precedent. This means that decisions by a higher court bind the lower court.
Legal regulation is an area of law that is mainly concerned with the provision of public services. Regulation of water, gas, and electricity is a common example. In most OECD countries, the water industry is regulated. Another example is the government’s requirement to disclose prices to consumers and third-party payers.
Some modern lawyers are required to hold a bachelor’s degree in law, a master’s degree in a field related to law, and a doctorate in a field of law. In some jurisdictions, they must also have a special qualification. Lawyers are usually appointed by the government or an independent regulating body.
These legal systems include judicial decisions and legislative statutes. They are typically shorter than civil law. They require less elaboration and are less complicated. Unlike civil law, the laws in these systems are explicitly acknowledged by the executive branch and the courts as “law.”
These types of laws are created through a variety of means. Some are made by the legislative branch, and others by the executive. Other laws are made by a single legislator or a group of lawmakers. Sometimes, these laws are enacted through a decree, an executive order, or a statute.
A wide range of industries are regulated. For instance, oil and gas, electricity, telecoms, and water are all regulated. Companies that operate in these industries have varying degrees of social responsibility.
A number of other fields are also covered by the law. For instance, space law is an emerging field that deals with the human activities in space. In this new field, property issues are growing in importance.
One of the more complicated areas of law is land law. Land is divided into real property and personal property. Personal property is considered to be things attached to or movable on land. Those who own personal property have rights to the land and to other things that are associated with it.
Commercial law focuses on the laws of trade and commerce. Company law traces its roots back to the laws of trusts. The Joint Stock Companies Act 1856 allowed for limited liability for investors. Similarly, tax law focuses on the levying of taxes.
Finally, religious law is based on the words of God and the teachings of the Bible and Quran. In this way, it resembles the common law of the United States.